Pumice is a light volcanic rock with a porous structure. Pumice with the Latin name pumicite is present in large quantities in volcanic regions. Magma, which comes to the surface of the earth with volcanic eruptions from the depths of the earth’s crust, cools very quickly and forms pumice by forming pumice . 



The sudden cooling of magma prevents the pumice from crystallizing. Volcanic pumice stone, also known as sponge stone among the people, is used in many areas from the construction sector to personal care, from textiles to the agricultural sector. 

What is Pumice Stone? 

Pumice stone, is a type of volcanic rock. The word pumice is of Italian origin. The essence of pumice is a silicate substance of volcanic origin. Its color is usually light color. Among its different varieties, the color scale ranges from white to gray. Some varieties have brown and black color. Some varieties turn blue in color. There is also a red pumice stone. Pumice has a volcanic glass structure and has a high exfoliating effect and water absorbency. 

What Kind of Pumice Is Rock?

Pumice rock is briefly an inorganic and volcanic rock. It is formed by foaming magma into pieces as it rises to the surface of the earth. The sudden cooling of the magma does not allow the pumice to crystallize. Therefore, there is no crystal juice in the pumice .  Instead there is a composition of rhyolite. Pumice rock has a porous structure, as the gases in its composition suddenly evaporate as magma solidifies. And the pores are not connected with each other. The basic substance of volcanic pumice stone is magma. Each lava forms pumice rock when the necessary conditions are met. 
There are two main varieties of pumice rock in the form of acidic and basic. The most common type of pumice is acidic pumice .  The color of this stone is white or off-white. Its quality is also high. Its density is between 0.5 and 1 g/cm³. A white pumice of good quality does not break when it falls on a hard surface, but becomes powder. On the other hand, the color of basic pumice is brown or black. Also known as basaltic pumice or scoria, this stone has a density between 1 and 2 g/cm³. Its quality is lower than that of white pumice.

How to Make Pumice Stone? 

The first stage in the production of volcanic pumice stone is separation. As a matter of fact, at this stage, the decomposition of the impurities in the pumice is ensured. Then the classification according to their size begins. Then the washing process takes place. It is essential to be clean for the benefits of pumice to be revealed. After washing, the drying process begins. The pumice is completely free from moisture and the edges are rounded in the next stage. This process, known as the tumbling process, prevents the pumice from cutting or tearing as it softens its edges. 

Where is Pumice Stone Used? 

It is estimated that pumice was first used in Ancient Greece. In the architectural field, we see that pumice was used by the Romans in the 1st century BC. Pumice had an important place in Roman architecture, especially in the construction of thermal baths. In modern architecture, pumice first came into use in California in the 18th century. Its use in Europe began in Germany in the 19th century. With the developing technological possibilities, pumice has started to stand out in many areas since the second half of the 20th century. 
Today, we see that pumice in Turkey is most often used in the construction sector. The main reason for this is that it reduces heat and sound transmittance thanks to its porous structure. It is also widely used in cleaning and polishing as an abrasive agent. We see that pumice is an ideal product in glassware processing. In the field of textiles, pumice interact with fabric dye, giving the dye appropriate qualities. Especially in the grinding of jeans, the contribution of pumice is great. In addition to these, pumice is of great importance in the production of liquid soap and eraser. On the other hand, it is included as a chemical carrier in pesticides. It is possible to make healthier barbecues with pumice that become incandescent when heated enough than coal fire. 

What are the Benefits of Pumice Stone? 

  • Reduces heat and sound permeability. 
  • In the field of agriculture, it improves soil quality, removes harmful organisms. 
  • It helps sandy soils to retain water, ensures the ripening of fruits. 
  • It provides grinding of jeans in textiles. 
  • It offers effective solutions as a transport material on snow-covered roads.